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English Language and Literature: Websites

A guide to resources in English language and literature.

Evaluating Websites: the CRAAP test

Not all websites are created equal. For research papers, only use websites that pass the CRAAP test. Use the worksheet at the bottom of the column when evaluating sources.


  • When was the information published?
  • Has the site been updated recently?
  • Does your topic require current information or will 'historic' information be ok?


  • How well does this information relate to your topic?
  • For what audience is the information intended?
  • Is it at the appropriate level (i.e. not too simple or advanced) for your reading audience?


  • Who is the author of the site? Can you find a name, organization, or business listed?
  • Why is this person/organization/business qualified to give information on this topic?
  • Is there a contact name or e-mail listed in case you need to follow-up?
  • Does the URL tell you anything about the source (.com, .edu, .gov)?


  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence like data, interviews, exc.?
  • Are there outside sources listed or linked?
  • Does the language seem unbiased?
  • Are there spelling errors and other typos?


  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform, teach, sell or entertain?
  •  Are the intentions of the site clear?
  • Does the viewpoint appear to be impartial and objective?

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